As I think about it more, that motherboard has two SATA controllers, and Windows 10 simply wasn't finding the second one, which had both of the SATA optical drives connected to it. I could have switched to open ports, but still, the controller should have worked.
I believe it is a JMicron controller, but is called Gigabyte SATA2, and it controls the PATA ports as well.
The borked games meant I couldn't just go in and fix the hardware problems. No way to get past the game problems, so reverting to 7 was the only real solution.