Hi drakenapollo and welcome to the forum.
cd-recordable : one time recording
cd-rewritable : many times recording
There are several formats of cd's. most have to do with the capacity :
standard 74 minute cd-recordable (650 mb)
80 minutes ( about 700 mb)
There are two formats : + and - ; The main difference is the method of writing. It depends on the reader if it can read + , - or both. Currently , ALL of them are Single Sided Single Layer DVD's , which means there's one writable side of 4.7 Gigs.
rw : rewritable
r : recordable
If this is your first dvd writer , i suggest purchasing a dual-burner (one that can write + and well as -). The Nec 2500 is quite a nice choiche for this.
If you want more details , please read some of the articles we have posted throughout the years.