Hmm, not sure I follow you entirely, but I am going to assume that you have checked that the motherboard is compatible with Windows 10.
For the write protected disk, your go to in this case is Advanced repair options - command prompt like you suggest, but not chkdsk.exe. It is called diskpart.exe.
Before you commence though, issue the command chkdsk c: alone to do a read only scan to see if there are errors.
After typing diskpart and hitting enter, your prompt will change to DISKPART> and then there are some commands that needs to be executed.
This will list the disks installed. If you only have one, this should be listed as 'Disk 0'.
DISKPART>select disk 0
Diskpart wil respond that Disk 0 is selected. This will tell diskpart that the next command is issued to this disk.
DISKPART>attributes disk clear readonly
This will clear any read only flag set for the disk.
This exits Diskpart. Now if the read only disk scan revealed any errors, run it again with the needed /F /X and if you need to check for bad sectors /R switches.
Now for the CRITICAL_PROCESS_DIED - This will largely depend on if you have been able to fully boot at all at one point. It could be caused by an active antivirus application if you did an update and it could be caused by corrupted registry hives. It could however also be caused by incompatible hardware.
Some information on the error is given by Microsoft here, but it is probably of limited value unless you are really techy...