Vinyl naar wav

kunnen jullie mij, one step at a time, uitleggen hoe je het best tracks van een lp naar wav kan omzetten?
(dus: beschrijf please alle handelingen, benodigde onderdelen (kabels, hardware) en software)


Steinberg Clean Plus kopen

Dit is een programma met voorversterkertje tussen platenspeler en geluidskaart. Dit apparaatje is precies hetzelfde als de Terratec Phono Preamp, maar dan in combinatie met de software een stukje goedkoper.

Volgens mij was het C’T die er in de Maart uitgave een stuk over geschreven had… zou ik eens moeten opzoeken.

De software is ook wel handig, verwijdert meteen ruis en kraakjes in de opnamen. (spin Doctor in Adaptec Easy CD Creator kan dat ook geloof ik)

Sorry, in het engels, maar wel zeer uitgebreid :slight_smile:

                    I am not a digital audio professional. Transferring LPs to CDR is my hobby, 
                    born of the desire to preserve those parts of my LP collection which (i) 
                    are unavailable on CD, or (ii) aren't essential enough to me to be worth 
                    spending the money replacing them on CD. 
                    My standards are high. I have a stereo system which all but a small 
                    minority of audiophile extremists would regard as "very high end". 
                    I'm not interested in putting anything onto a CDR unless I can get 
                    fairly close to perfection. The advice contained in these notes is empirical, and results from my own
                    personal experiences. 
                    I work on a PC, and can only offer advice in that arena. 
                    I have no knowledge whatsoever of doing this kind of work on 
                    Macs or Unix machines. 
                    At the end of this document is a list of useful URLs. 
                    Slightly off-topic: why use a computer?: 
                    I got some email from someone who asked me to add a short paragraph 
                    discussing alternative methods of archiving LPs without using a computer,
                    so I have done so at the end of these notes. 
                    The task of transferring an LP to CDR comprises 4 basic steps: 
                    Recording the LP to hard disk. 
                    Cleaning up the vinyl damage using a computer based WAV file editor. 
                    Preparing the tracks prior to burning. 
                    Burning the CDR. 
                    Recording the LP to Hard Disk

                    Clean the LP
                    Before you start, you should do your best to clean the record as 
                    thoroughly as possible; getting dust and gunge out of the grooves will 
                    eliminate a fair amount of the lower level noise that would otherwise 
                    require a very time-consuming job to remove at a later stage. 
                    Ideally use a vacuum device; even better get them professionally cleaned 
                    by someone who has access to a Keith Monks cleaning machine. 

                    Playing the LP
                    Use a good quality turntable to play the LP. The pickup cartridge should 
                    be properly aligned and the stylus should be in good condition and clean. 
                    A turntable is a mechanical device which is vulnerable to airborne and 
                    floorborne vibrations. Such vibrations can degrade the playback quality 
                    quite noticably. Even the very best turntables can suffer in this respect. 
                    Therefore, while recording the LP, keep surrounding sound levels as low 
                    as possible. Ideally you should not use any kind of monitoring at all; 
                    don't worry about knowing when the music starts and ends, just start 
                    recording from before placing the stylus on the lead-in groove and 
                    continue recording right into the run-out groove (trimming off these 
                    extra bits later is easy). 
                    I will assume that you will use a moving magnet or moving coil cartridge 
                    (all high quality cartridges are one of these two types). The signal off 
                    such a cartridge is both low in level (typically <5mV for moving magnet, 
                    <0.5mV for moving coil) so must be boosted to about 100mV needed to drive 
                    line level inputs, and is also RIAA equalised (applied when the LP is 
                    mastered to get around mechanical limitations of the LP system) which 
                    must be reversed so as to provide a flat frequency response for the line 
                    input. Both of these necessary operations are achieved with a suitable preamp. If you have a receiver or
                    stereo amplifier with a "phono" input, that input will perform this task, and the resulting line level output will
                    be available on the receiver/amplifier tape output. Tom Weber informs me that Radio Shack sells an
                    inexpensive amplifier (model number SA-155) for about $65 which is suitable, and I pass on his
                    recommendation here while emphasising that I have no personal experience of this device. I believe that
                    Radio Shack also sell a standalone phono preamp for about $30. If you have higher quality equipment such
                    as a separate preamp and poweramp, you'll know what I'm talking about and I leave the choice of a quality
                    phono stage up to you. 

                    Recording to Hard Disk
                    Once you have a line level signal, it needs to be digitised and recorded 
                    onto the computer's hard disk. Note that for a typical 40 minute LP, 
                    you'll need about 500Mb of disk space, and depending on what PC editor(s) 
                    you use, you might need another 500Mb for temporary files. 
                    Count on needing about a gigabyte in total. 
                    The standard Sound Recorder utility that comes with Windows is not 
                    suitable for this task because it records to main RAM and only writes 
                    the results to hard disk when recording finishes. This means that recording 
                    time is limited by the amount of RAM in the PC; since 16 bit stereo at 44kHz 
                    uses about 10MB per minute, there's no way you'll be able to record an entire
                    LP side using Sound Recorder. What is needed is a utility that can record 
                    direct to the hard disk. There are a large number of such utilities available
                    as shareware. My own shareware Wave Repair supports hard disk recording, 
                    has rather better record level metering than most other packages, and if 
                    used as a simple record utility it is freeware. Of the other packages around,
                    probably the cheapest is CD Wave. Two very good general purpose WAV file 
                    editors, CoolEdit 2000 and GoldWave, also offer direct to hard disk recording.

                    Once you have a package capable of recording direct to hard disk, there are 
                    two basic approaches to digitising the line level signal depending on the 
                    quality you require: 
                    Use a "normal" computer soundcard. You need a soundcard capable of 
                    44.1kHz 16bit stereo. All modern soundcards are able to do this. 
                    The (analogue) line level signal should be fed into the line input of the 
                    soundcard, and the signal can then be recorded straight to the hard disk. 
                    Use an outboard analogue-to-digital convertor, and feed its (digital) 
                    output into a soundcard capable of receiving digital signals. 
                    As with using a "normal" soundcard, the analogue signal must be sampled 
                    at 44.1kHz stereo. If you use an A/D convertor which is capable of more 
                    than 16 bit resolution, you might wish to find a soundcard that can 
                    maintain those bits (although you will of course have to convert 
                    to 16 bit before actually burning a CDR). However, my own experience is 
                    that even the most perfect of LP sources will be hard pressed to deliver 
                    a signal with more than 12 bits resolution, so plain vanilla 16 bit is fine,
                    and even truncation without redithering won't harm the LP signal. 
                    Using a "normal" soundcard is certainly a much cheaper option, 
                    but the inside of a PC is a very hostile environment for analogue signals. 
                    Some soundcards are better than others in their rejection of this noise 
                    pollution. Among affordable brands, Turtle Beach have a good reputation. 
                    The old Ensoniq Audio PCI, which was a very popular high quality soundcard,
                    was taken over by Creative and it appears is now discontinued. 
                    The ultimate in quality for "normal" soundcards probably remains the 
                    Digital Audio Labs CardD+, but this is about $500. Another company 
                    whose soundcards have a very good reputation is Event Electronics; 
                    their Darla, Gina and Layla systems have all been recommended, but you 
                    should keep in mind that these are primarily multitrack recording systems,
                    so could be considered overkill on the features front if all you're doing 
                    is recording stereo. In general, Soundblasters perform poorly 
                    (with the possible exception of the Live! and AWE 64 Gold, which 
                    some people say have quite good sound quality; I've not used either, 
                    but can report that my experience with an AWE 64 Value was not good). 
                    Most cheap unbranded Soundblaster compatibles have simply dreadful 
                    sound quality. 
                    have a lot of good information about analogue soundcards. 
                    As for soundcards which can receive a digital signal, there are a host 
                    of options. The cheapest I know to work well is a "digital-only" version 
                    of the DAL CardD at about $300, but this only supports COAX SPDIF. 
                    Two other highly regarded cards are the Zefiro ZA2 and AdB MultiWave Pro, 
                    both of which support COAX and optical SPDIF and professional AES/EBU 
                    standards; these two cards are about $450. Midiman are in the process 
                    of releasing a pair of SPDIF I/O cards: the DiO-2448 supports up to 
                    24bit/48kHz, and the DiO-2496 goes up to 24bit/96kHz; they both include 
                    an analogue output for monitoring purposes. I haven't heard any reports 
                    of how well they work, but they will be fairly inexpensive and, 
                    being PCI cards, will be future-proof against motherboard upgrades. 
                    A couple of older Turtle Beach cards, the Fiji and Pinnicle, 
                    have daughter board options to provide SPDIF I/O and are known to 
                    work well, but may be getting difficult to acquire now that they are 
                    out of production. Three inexpensive cards have recently come on the 
                    scene which can have an SPDIF daughter board added: 
                    Turtle Beach Montego II, Creative Soundblaster Live, and Hootech ST Digital XG.
                    However, all three resample the SPDIF input to an onboard clock rate, so 
                    they do not allow for bit-perfect transfer of external digital audio to 
                    the hard disk. Previous versions of this page mentioned a card from a 
                    German company called Scalacs, but I have contacted them and the card is 
                    no longer available. A company called Opcode made a device called the 
                    DATPort which allows SPDIF signals to be transferred via USB ports, 
                    but I have seen many reports that it is very difficult to get working 
                    reliably, and since Opcode were taken over by Gibson it appears that 
                    no support is available. And finally, you may hear stories about $20 
                    soundcards with SPDIF I/O. Various people have tested these cards and 
                    in the vast majority of cases could not make the SPDIF I/O work properly. 
                    Even those few people who did have success needed to build extra bits of 
           has a lot of good information about 
                    digital soundcards. 

                    The following tip comes courtesy of Richard Melton: 
                    When using an analogue soundcard, it is often a good idea to mute all 
                    inputs and outputs that aren't actually being used (eg. mic, MIDI, etc). 
                    This will improve the noise performance of many soundcards. 
                    Note that some soundcards have a "calibration" function, which should 
                    be re-run after changing the input configuration. 

                    Humming Along with the Music
                    It's quite possible that when you hook up the line level output from the 
                    LP playback system to the input of your PC's soundcard, a hum will result. 
                    This is due to problems with the ground connections on various parts of 
                    the whole setup (usually the PC's ground and the stereo system's ground 
                    are at different voltages). 
                    Trying to rectify this kind of hum can be problematic, but a few things 
                    to try are: 
                    Check that all the components in your stereo system and the PC are actually 
                    grounded; leaving off a ground can easily cause hum. 
                    Plug all mains electrical items (ie. all stereo components and the PC) 
                    into the same mains outlet, using multiway adapters as necessary. 
                    (The power consumption of all these kind of devices is so low that this 
                    will not overload the outlet). This forces all the components to share 
                    a common ground, which might fix the problem. 
                    If sharing the same outlet doesn't help, you can try disconnecting the 
                    ground connections from some components. Start with the turntable itself. 
                    If this doesn't work, check to see if the turntable's connection to the 
                    preamp/amp/receiver has a separate ground wire and try the effect of 
                    attaching/removing it from the preamp/amp/receiver's grounding post. 
                    If you still have no luck, try disconnecting the preamp/amp/receiver's 
                    ground (both with and without the turntable ground re-connected). 
                    However, beware of any dire warnings in the manufacturer's manual about this:
                    in many cases it will be safe, but some components might not have insulated 
                    Rod Smith tells me that cable TV connections can sometimes cause a ground 
                    loop if they are fed into the stereo system. In this case, the simplest 
                    solution is to disconnect the cable TV output from the stereo system 
                    while recording into the computer. 
                    George Koulomzin suggests another experiment. If you have mains plugs 
                    that can be inserted either way round, try the effect of reversing one 
                    or more of them. This alters the relative phase of the mains to the 
                    components, and it may cause the hum to cancel out. 
                    Stores such as Radio Shack sell small transformers known as 
                    "ground loop isolators". These can cure some types of hum problem when 
                    connected between the stereo system and the computer. 
                    If all this fails, then I'm at a loss as to what you might try, 
                    short of removing all grounds from all components, bundling them 
                    all together and strapping them to a copper pipe buried in the (real) ground! 

                    Setting Record Levels
                    Whether you choose to go with a "normal" soundcard or external A/D convertor,
                    it is important to set the input levels accordingly. The aim here is to 
                    get peaks as close to 0dB as possible without exceeding that level. 
                    This is for two reasons: 
                    It uses the maximum resolution available with the 16 bits. 
                    Having said this, since an LP signal manages about 12 bits resolution 
                    at best, you could in theory afford to leave a huge headroom 
                    (eg. peak around -12dB or even less) without losing resolution. 
                    (Less obvious but probably more important) If you record at a low level 
                    and burn a CDR, you will end up with a CD that plays too quietly in 
                    comparison to your other (commercial) CDs. While it is possible to bring 
                    the level up using the "normalisation" feature of many WAV file editors, 
                    such normalisation is never perfect (the arithmetic that is performed 
                    results in rounding errors), and so it is better to avoid this if at 
                    all possible. 
                    As a guide, I tend to pick what I think is the loudest part of the LP, 
                    and set record levels to register about -3dB for that part, which 
                    leaves a little headroom in reserve. 
                    Unlike recording to analogue tape (where pushing the signal level well 
                    past the nominal maximum level can sometimes be a valid approach) 
                    it is absolutely crucial that you never exceed the 0dB level. 
                    If you do, the result is digital clipping; an extremely unpleasant-sounding
                    type of distortion. 

                    Track Splitting
                    When recording an LP to hard disk, don't be tempted to try and split 
                    the tracks at this stage. You will want to retain the correct timing of 
                    inter-track gaps on the final CD, and it is much easier to split the tracks 
                    and retain the correct length gap using a PC editor later. 
                    (Indeed, you may use a CDR burning package that doesn't need the tracks 
                    to be in separate files anyway). 
                    Cleaning up the Recording
                    Once the signal is on hard disk, the hard work begins. 
                    Before we start, let me state from the outset that many people hope to 
                    find a single software package that will do everything they need. 
                    This is an unrealistic expectation; in general you will need a toolkit of 
                    various packages. In the notes which follow I will point out the strengths 
                    of those which I have personally used, and in passing will mention other 
                    packages which I have not used but nevertheless have a good reputation. 

                    Mono LPs
                    Most people will be recording from stereo records. However, if you want 
                    to transfer a mono LP there are a few extra issues to consider which 
                    I'd like to deal with first. A CD cannot be mono; you must record it in 
                    stereo. The ideal situation is that the two channels are identical, 
                    but if you just play a mono LP on a standard stereo turntable, 
                    the chances of getting identical left and right channels is virtually nil. 
                    It way well be that they are close enough that the results sound fine and 
                    you don't feel the need to change anything. 

                    However, what if the two channels are sufficiently different that the 
                    results are not really acceptable mono? To arrive at two identical 
                    channels, there are basically three options: 
                    Merge the two channels together and duplicate the results to both left 
                    and right. You may find that some surface noise cancels slightly this way. 
                    Duplicate the left or right channel to both channels. This would be 
                    appropriate if you decide that one of the two channels is markedly better 
                    than the other. The most likely reason this might be the case is when one 
                    of the groove walls has worse damage than the other, allowing you to select 
                    the channel with less surface noise and/or clicks & pops. 
                    Some intermediate stage between the two above options, whereby the 
                    channels are merged but a weighting is applied so that a greater 
                    proportion of one channel is used than the other. 
                    Either of the first two options can be achieved with creative wiring of 
                    the turntable's cartridge, but a weighted merge is only really possible 
                    using a mixer. You can of course deal with it all in software once the 
                    signal is on hard disk, and this is the course I'd recommend. 
                    One advantage to recording the two channels to hard disk as stereo is 
                    that if there is a click on one channel only, you can copy over a clean 
                    section from the other channel. Only after this stage would it then be 
                    appropriate to start mixing the channels to mono. CoolEdit 2000 is probably 
                    the best affordable tool for this kind of channel merging operation, 
                    using its channel mixer. 

                    Trimming Out Unwanted Sections and Fading In & Out
                    These are essential steps, and can be done easily using a wide variety 
                    of WAV file editors. Two affordable shareware editors that I strongly 
                    recommend are GoldWave and CoolEdit 2000. My own shareware Wave Repair 
                    can also trim off unwanted sections. Try to get the start of the WAV 
                    file as close to the beginning of the music as possible, leaving perhaps 
                    a quarter second in reserve. Once you've trimmed this excess at the start, 
                    edit the first few samples to make sure they are zero on both channels and 
                    then fade in the next few samples (making sure you get to full volume by 
                    the time the music starts); all this messing about is to get a nice clean 
                    start to the CDR without a click. The same procedure is required at the end 
                    of the LP, although here you should aim for a longer, gradual fade out. 
                    I like to add a little extra silence at the end; this is because some 
                    CD players make quite a bit of mechanical noise at the end of a CD 
                    (eg. relays switching, laser sleds parking, etc), and I prefer this not 
                    to happen the instant the music finishes. 

                    Removing Clicks, Pops and Noise
                    Even the best LP will have some minor clicks that you'll want to remove. 
                    Some very old records might have so much tape hiss you'd like to reduce 
                    that, too. 
                    I'll deal with removing constant noise first, as this is easiest to deal 
                    with. CoolEdit 2000 has a fine broadband noise reduction mechanism: 
                    you select a region that is only noise, and CoolEdit samples it; 
                    you then select the region to be noise-reduced, and CoolEdit subtracts 
                    the noise spectrum from the selected region. This works well, but for 
                    tape hiss can cut out quite a bit of the high frequency programme content. 
                    It should also be used in moderation, since it can impart a sort of 
                    "metallic, robotic" sound to the music if you use it too enthusiastically. 
                    You might instead try playing around with GoldWave's parametric EQ, 
                    using fairly steep notch filters; this can sometimes work well. 
                    Another package which deserves a mention is DCart. This has a fairly 
                    good dynamic noise limiter, which varies the amount of hiss reduction 
                    based on the amount of high frequency signal that is present. 
                    When there is a lot of high frequency energy, the amount of hiss reduction 
                    is small; this takes advantage of the fact that the high frequencies 
                    that are present mask the hiss. When there is little high frequency content, 
                    the amount of hiss reduction is high, and the loss of what little high 
                    frequencies there are isn't very noticable. 
                    This approach can work remarkably well, especially on "busy" music, 
                    although it pumps badly on some kinds of signal (eg. solo piano).
                    Removing Clicks, Pops and Noise
                    Even the best LP will have some minor clicks that you'll want to remove. 
                    Some very old records might have so much tape hiss you'd like to reduce 
                    that, too. 
                    I'll deal with removing constant noise first, as this is easiest to deal 
                    with. CoolEdit 2000 has a fine broadband noise reduction mechanism: 
                    you select a region that is only noise, and CoolEdit samples it; 
                    you then select the region to be noise-reduced, and CoolEdit subtracts 
                    the noise spectrum from the selected region. This works well, but for 
                    tape hiss can cut out quite a bit of the high frequency programme content. 
                    It should also be used in moderation, since it can impart a sort of 
                    "metallic, robotic" sound to the music if you use it too enthusiastically. 
                    You might instead try playing around with GoldWave's parametric EQ, 
                    using fairly steep notch filters; this can sometimes work well. 
                    Another package which deserves a mention is DCart. This has a fairly 
                    good dynamic noise limiter, which varies the amount of hiss reduction 
                    based on the amount of high frequency signal that is present. 
                    When there is a lot of high frequency energy, the amount of hiss reduction 
                    is small; this takes advantage of the fact that the high frequencies 
                    that are present mask the hiss. When there is little high frequency content, 
                    the amount of hiss reduction is high, and the loss of what little high 
                    frequencies there are isn't very noticable. 
                    This approach can work remarkably well, especially on "busy" music, 
                    although it pumps badly on some kinds of signal (eg. solo piano). 

                    Removing clicks and pops without adversely affecting the music is really 
                    difficult. There are a number of packages on the market which claim to do 
                    so automatically, and their number seems to be growing on an almost daily 
                    basis. I have tried the following: DCart, DART Pro, CoolEdit 2000, 
                    CoolEdit Pro (a more expensive version of CoolEdit 2000), Sound Laundry, 
                    Spin Doctor (bundled with Adaptec Easy CD Creator Deluxe), WAVclean, 
                    Wave Corrector, Wave Repair (written by me, so take what I say about 
                    it with a suitable dose of suspicion :-). 
                    They all suffer from the same basic problem: they sometimes work very 
                    well, and other times they actually make things worse. You can try 
                    fiddling with the parameters, but this rarely results in any significant 
                    improvement. Some of them (DART Pro, and especially CoolEdit Pro) have 
                    so many configuration parameters that it's well-nigh impossible to try 
                    them all out, especially since they perform their processing so slowly. 
                    DCart, Sound Laundry and Wave Repair are better in this respect because 
                    they have a realtime preview mode which allows you to adjust the 
                    parameters while listening to their effect. WAVclean, while not working 
                    in real time, allows you to listen to the results so far while it's 
                    still processing the remainder of the file. 
                    Wave Corrector is a recent newcomer and my initial impression of it is 
                    very favourable. While it does not work in real time, it does allow 
                    the user to review and adjust the correction of each individual click, 
                    and its detection and repair algorithms seem to be rather more effective 
                    than most. CoolEdit 2000's audio cleanup plug-in seems to give the best 
                    results of them all. Although its processing is painfully slow, the 
                    factory defaults appear to be well suited to LP cleanup. 
                    (Curiously, the presets in CoolEdit Pro are not nearly so effective, 
                    unless they have been updated since I last evaluated it). 

                    The bottom line though is that there is as yet no automatic way to 
                    remove all the clicks and pops without also affecting some aspect of 
                    the music. I perform this step manually in most cases, by listening 
                    to the waveform, homing in on the clicks, and redrawing the wave shape 
                    with the mouse or interpolating out the defect. 
                    When doing this, it is best to monitor on headphones as they are far 
                    more revealing of clicks and pops than loudspeakers. 
                    In order to manually redraw a waveform, both GoldWave and CoolEdit 2000 
                    have the ability to zoom in to individual samples and move them. 
                    However, their interfaces for this operation are clumsy, and Wave Repair 
                    is a much better tool for this task. 

                    Another tool that has a good reputation is Sound Forge, but note that 
                    this is an expensive package. I've not personally evaluated it so am 
                    unable to give any comments other than to report that some people 
                    consider it to be a cut above the more affordable tools mentioned above. 

                    Another type of vinyl artifact you might want to remove is distortion due 
                    to damage caused by previous mistracking. Manually redrawing waveforms 
                    certainly doesn't get you very far with this. I have found that this kind 
                    of distortion can sometimes be removed quite well by two of the packages 
                    mentioned above. Sound Laundry's de-scratcher seems to give the best 
                    results in most cases, with only subtle artifacts (the worst aspect is 
                    that vocal sibilance tend to be emphasised). WAVclean usually removes 
                    even more of the mistracking distortion than Sound Laundry, but its 
                    artifacts are rather more obvious, and I can only describe them as 
                    imparting a "hollow" sort of characteristic. I have also on occasions 
                    been able to reduce mistracking damage using parametric EQ with a very 
                    deep notch filter at a fairly high frequency (eg. around 15kHz). 
                    This dulls the frequency balance, so a compensatory lift somewhere around 
                    4kHz is needed to restore some of the lost "sparkle"; it's not perfect 
                    but it can be an improvement. My opinion is that GoldWave has the best 
                    parametric EQ at an affordable price. 

                    If you insist on being lazy and using an automatic declicker, then I 
                    would advise that you choose one capable of real-time preview while 
                    adjusting the settings. Working with packages that do not offer this 
                    feature is extremely frustrating, unless by good fortune they have 
                    presets that happen to work well. My own experience with real-time 
                    capable packages is: 
                    Sound Laundry is very good at reducing constant "crackle", but can 
                    introduce artifacts (hollow-sounding "pops", and an emphasis of vocal 
                    The latest version of DCart ("Diamond Cut Audio Restoration Tools 32") 
                    is very good for general vinyl-type "hash", and has surprisingly low 
                    artifacts. (My experience with earlier versions of DCart was not so 
                    Wave Repair is more aimed at individual distinct clicks which, provided 
                    they are detected, are usually repaired with little or no audible artifacts. 
                    Since it attempts to repair without artifacts, it does tend to miss clicks 
                    that other more aggressive packages pick up. It doesn't tackle hash and crackle. 
                    Two other packages that don't work in real-time can be recommended: 
                    Wave Corrector is a very effective all-round declicker with minimal 
                    artifacts, and it allows you to manually adjust the correction applied 
                    to individual clicks, so I recommend it even though it does not operate 
                    in realtime. 
                    CoolEdit 2000's audio cleanup plug-in gives the best results I have yet 
                    come across, so I recommend it despite the fact that it operates perhaps 
                    an order of magnitude slower than other packages. The only noticable 
                    artifact is a roughening of loud "raspy" instruments (eg. sax). 
                    None of the packages successfully repair really big pops, which are 
                    best tackled manually. Note that it is best to do this manual fix up 
                    before running an automatic declicker. This is because big pops can 
                    confuse the declicking algorithms, often resulting in their replacement 
                    with dull thuds and splats which are far more difficult to isolate than 
                    the original pops, thus making them harder to fix in the long run. 

                    Equalisation (EQ), Normalisation and Compression
                    These are optional steps that may sometimes be appropriate. 
                    Regarding EQ, some LPs do suffer from high frequency dullness, and it's 
                    worth giving the top end a little boost. I keep on hard disk a short 
                    section of music (extracted digitally from a CD) which I consider to 
                    have ideal tonal balance and dynamics when played back on my stereo system, 
                    and use this as a reference against which to compare work in progress. 
                    The most I've ever put on is about +6dB from 5kHz upwards; 
                    this is usually only necessary on reissue LPs that were probably pressed 
                    from "high-mileage" stampers. In general, it's best not to fiddle too 
                    much with the balance chosen by the people who originally made the LP. 

                    Normalisation is a procedure that ensures the WAV file peaks at the 
                    maximum possible value. If for some reason you recorded at too low a level, 
                    then normalisation is probably worth doing. 

                    Note that normalisation does not guarantee that all tracks will sound 
                    equally loud; the perceived loudness is equally influenced by the 
                    dynamic range of the music. Compression can be used to squash the 
                    dynamic range which makes the music sound louder. It also tends to 
                    sound more "punchy". Applying differing levels of compression can be 
                    used to balance the loudness of tracks from a variety of sources, 
                    but be aware that excessive compression, while sounding initially impressive,
                    can rob the sound of its subtlety. 

                    Some packages I can recommend which provide EQ, Normalisation and Compression
                    include GoldWave, CoolEdit 2000, Wave Repair, and DCart. 
                    Preparing Tracks for Burning
                    Splitting Tracks into Separate WAV Files
                    Depending on your choice of CDR burning software, you may need to split 
                    the individual tracks into separate WAV files. This can be done with a wide 
                    variety of WAV file editors (eg. GoldWave and CoolEdit), but the task is much
                    simpler using either CD Wave or Wave Repair. 
                    On the other hand, you may have a CDR burning package such as 
                    GoldenHawk's CDRWin that will place track (and maybe index) marks within 
                    a single WAV file. In this case, you will need to prepare a suitable 
                    definition of where those marks should be. As with track splitting, 
                    CD Wave and Wave Repair make the creation of CDRWin cue sheets simple. 
                    Note that if you wish to set indexes as well as tracks, Wave Repair 
                    supports them but CD Wave doesn't. 

                    Stripping Out Headers and Trailers, Padding Blocks
                    I've never come across one, but have heard rumours that some CDR 
                    burning software fails to ignore the WAV header, which must be stripped 
                    from WAV files before burning. More likely is that an incorrect WAV header 
                    might not be noticed by the CDR burning package, which thinks it is 
                    audio data and puts it on the CDR. Some WAV file editors place housekeeping 
                    information at the end of the WAV file, and this too may need to be stripped 
                    depending on the burning software you use. Finally, if the music data in a 
                    WAV file is not a multiple of 2352 bytes (the block size on a CD), 
                    then the last block might be left as garbage, resulting in a small click 
                    on playback; other burning software will fill the last block with zeros, 
                    so be sure that the last sample in your WAV file is zero to avoid a click
                    at the transition. There is a utility called StripWave which can help here,
                    and can be found on Mike Richter's Useful Addresses for CDR page. 
                    Burning the CDR
                    This is pretty straightforward. Just make sure you don't do anything that 
                    might interrupt the data flow to the burner. Things like screen savers, 
                    auto-answer modems, email servers and the like should be switched off for 
                    the duration of a CDR burn. 
                    The latest hidden menace is FastFind. This is a little applet that comes 
                    with recent versions of Microsoft Office that wakes up now and again and 
                    scurries around your hard disk building info for later use. 
                    Needless to say, FastFind consumes vast amounts of resources while it's 
                    awake, and naturally it'll be your luck that it will kick in while you're 
                    trying to burn a CDR. Kill it, by removing it from your system's 
                    Startup group. 

                    If you've read earlier versions of this page, you'll know that I used to 
                    burn CDRs from DOS. I took the view that burning a CDR is a realtime 
                    operation, and DOS is the only (vaguely) realtime operating system 
                    available for the PC. Lately, however, I have started burning direct 
                    from Win95 (using CDRWin) and not had a failure yet. 

                    IDE hard disks are perfectly capable of delivering the data rate required 
                    to burn a CDR, even if you burn at 4x speed. Take no notice of those who 
                    say you have to have SCSI disks (not that I have anything against SCSI). 
                    Likewise with so-called "A/V" disks; these are unnecessary for this kind 
                    of work (they are really for heavy-duty multitrack and video work). 
                    Some people will claim you need to defragment your hard disk before burning,
                    but modern disks have such low seek times that I don't bother with this any 
                    more, and I've not had a coaster yet. You may hear horror stories about
                    "thermal recalibration" interrupting the data flow. 
                    This is largely a thing of the past (having been superceded by "embedded 
                    servo") so you probably don't need to worry about this. 
                    I'm not aware of any current production hard disks that still use thermal 

                    Track-at-once burning can be used, and with the variable gap capabilities 
                    of some hardware and software can be made to approach disc-at-once results, 
                    but frankly all this fiddling about is just skirting around the basic issue, 
                    which is that audio discs are best made in disc-at-once mode, period. 
                    So don't buy a writer that doesn't support disc-at-once, ok? 

                    Regarding CDR burning software: for audio CD creation, I very strongly 
                    recommend CDRWin (and its DOS version, called DAO). CDRWin does one 
                    thing very well: it writes CDRs in disc-at-once mode, and allows you to 
                    lay out the tracks and indexes exactly how you want. Unlike other packages, 
                    it doesn't make any decisions for you. I like to stay in control. 
                    A word of warning is in order, though. Some people have found that they 
                    are unable to get CDRWin working on their particular systems. 
                    This is usually a SCSI configuration problem, but the real issue is that
                    Goldenhawk's support can sometimes be rather unsympathetic. 
                    Because of this, my advice is that you should download the demo version 
                    of CDRWin and check that it works in your system before actually buying it.
                    (This is the rule for any shareware: don't pay for anything you've not been 
                    able to evaluate and verify works as you require). 

                    Adaptec's Easy CD Creator is bundled with many CDR drives, and its basic 
                    disc writing engine is very solid. Although it is somewhat lacking in 
                    flexibility, it is fine for creation of straightforward audio CDRs. 
                    Two other packages which have good reputations are Nero and Feurio, but 
                    I have no experience with them. 
                    Useful URLs
                    Other Sites with Relevant Advice Gramophone Magazine's
                    Audio-on-Computer Survey 

                    WAV File Editors GoldWave CoolEdit 2000 & Pro
           Sound Forge CD Wave 
           Wave Repair 
           StripWave + other goodies 

                    Soundcards Turtle Beach soundcards CardD analogue and digital
                    soundcards Event analogue and digital recording systems Zefiro digital
                    soundcards AdB digital soundcards Midiman digital soundcards
           Opcode SPDIF/USB interfaces Reviews of Various Soundcards
           Reviews of Various Soundcards
                    Extensive Info on Digital Soundcards 

                    Music Restoration Software DCart Sound Laundry
           Sound Forge Spin Doctor
           Wave Corrector 
           Wave Repair WAVclean
           CoolEdit 2000 & Pro DART Pro 

                    Miscellaneous CDRWin and DAO CD writing software Easy CD
                    Creator CD writing software Feurio CD writing software Nero CD writing
                    software CDR FAQ 
           Mike Richter's CDR site 
                    Alternatives to Using a Computer
                    It only makes sense to use a computer if you're planning to try and 
                    clean up the signals on your LPs. If you're happy with the way they sound, 
                    and you just want to transfer them to a more convenient medium or to preserve 
                    them, then involving a computer in the process is fairly pointless. 
                    If you do want to clean up your LPs (ie. remove noise, clicks and pops) 
                    then a computer is really the only affordable way. 
                    (There are mega-expensive professional hardware units, 
                    such as the CEDAR range, that will do the job but these are totally outside 
                    a hobbyist's budget). 

                    If you don't want to use a computer, the choice of archival medium is quite

                    Analogue Cassette. 
                    Despite its antique status, good old cassette tape can 
                    make surprisingly faithful recordings provided you use a good quality deck 
                    and tape. This is still a very cheap medium. 
                    HiFi VHS. Many good quality video recorders can be used as audio decks. 
                    If your video is a HiFi model and has manually adjustable recording levels,
                    it will probably give quite good quality; about on a par with good analogue 
                    cassette. Cost of tapes is even cheaper than cassette. 

                    Although DAT will give you stunning quality, the tapes are not 
                    particularly cheap, and the medium is delicate. DAT tape is not a good 
                    long-term archival format. 
                    It is now clear that Minidisc is beginning to make headway, and looks 
                    like being here to stay. The latest Minidisc players I've heard have given 
                    very good quality indeed; certainly better than any cassette deck. 
                    Minidisc is of course a very convenient format, and the price of blank 
                    discs has been falling rapidly. 

                    Audio-only CDR recorders are now coming onto the market at affordable prices,
                    and give virtually the same quality as DAT tape. CDR is also a much more 
                    stable archival medium. It's a pity that the recorders insist on using 
                    royalty-paid consumer-grade blanks. Semi-pro machines able to use the 
                    considerably cheaper computer-grade blanks will probably become more 

                    DCC. Dead.

Je zal nu wel moeie vingers hebben of nie?! hehe! :stuck_out_tongue:

Tax: idd, het stond in de laatste editie van C’T! Kan het evt. wel scannen als er belangstelling voor is!