It takes a mastering encoder system (US$50,000-$200,000 depending on speeds and copy protection options).
This encoder connects to a LBR (laser beam recorder) that burns data onto a special glass master. This system costs somewhere between US$800,000 to $1,500,000).
Once the glass is burned, it must be developed (several thousand dollar system).
Then it must be metalized (several thousand dollar system).
Then it is put in ‘galvanics’ (many several thousand dollar system) to grow the stamper.
The stamper is placed in plastic molding machines (many many many thousand dollar system).
The end result is a disc every 3-5 seconds or so.
But the first part (the mastering encoder) can not make copies of already protected discs. It can APPLY the protection to a non protected image though.
Hope this helps.
I forgot to mention the clean room that some of this equipment must be in. And, the special glass is fairly expensive per piece as well. Not 100% sure on the prices listed above, but I’m pretty close I bet.