On computers I've repaired the drive not being seen in windows is one problem
And my usual test for this is going into setup selecting the optical drive as first in the boot order, then shutting down and cold starting with a windows installation disc if the disc spins up and the installer starts the drive and controller are good and the OS on the HDD or the HDD itself is screwed.
(this ignores potential cable issues which only apply to desktops)
Yes, you can play around with drivers and the device manager, but generally anything other than a fresh hard drive and a clean install of the windows OS of your choice will have you doing it again
(multiple times) until you finally stop circle jerking yourself and start from a clean slate.
If the drive isn't being seen in BIOS it's an entirely different problem
and the choices are very limited.
A) the drive itself is dead (try the drive in another notebook)
B) the drive controller is screwed (verify by testing the drive in
If there are any other options I've never heard of them.