You can test the suspicious HDD as follows in HD Tune. You can download it here (the free version is fine.)
Select your hard disk from the drop down and go into the health tab:
Both the red highlighted values above should show "0" in the data column. If either shows 1 or higher, this means that the hard disk has started encountering problems. If either shows 10 or higher, I would not recommend using the hard disk.
Go into the "Error Scan" tab and click 'Start'. Do no tick the "Quick Scan" option. It can take a few hours for this scan to complete. If one or more red dots appear, the hard disk has defective sectors.
Unfortunately, the manufacturer's own diagnostic tools generally do a quick surface scan and random seek tests, which means that they can easily miss defective spots on a defective HDD.
Same issue happened to me in the past. I bought a HDD for someone looking to replace a HDD in their old laptop and I was unable to find anywhere that had an IDE HDD in stock at the time. So I bought a refurbished one off eBay and sure enough, it failed 2 months later.