Find out the components on the motherboard which need drivers.
Check to see if the drivers exist.
This usually works for retail boards, or for boards from OEM machines where the OEM keeps good document about what makes the board up. It's even better if you can check the manufacturer's website (or the OEM's website) for a list of available drivers.
So you have to know the make & model of the board and see if there's good document. If not, you're probably going to need to find out which north bridge and south bridge the board uses (where applicable), as well as all other components (Ethernet controller, audio controller, secondary USB controller, secondary PATA or SATA controllers, verify the processors a board supports, etc).