I came across this thread, which is worth checking. I wonder if its USB protection is similar to what it uses on DVD.
It does seem to check the name of what opens the PDF, which likely explains why Chrome couldn't open it. However, you could try Internet Explorer or making a copy of iexplore.exe and renaming it to a few suggestions in this post as the default viewer.
From what I've read, if any application that successfully opens the PDF tries writing anything to the hard disk, the resulting file is zero-wiped by the protection, so what ever successfully opens it would need to be able to upload it, unless you can find a way of doing a memory dump and extracting the PDF from that.
I don't think creating an image of the USB stick will work. The RunMe probably checks the USB stick for a serial number or some other hardware detail that is not in the file system before it allows the contents to be accessed. The actual files are likely encrypted, but transparently decrypted in the background as Acrobat opens them, muck like using a disk encryption utility.