Most of the latest infections going around are those that involve showing a fake infection warning screen with an option to buy a "Cleaner" to clean the so called infections it found. Some scams also pose as fake defraggers or disk repair tools.
According to TorrentFreak, there has been an even more serious looking variant going around, but instead of appearing as a fake AV or system tool, this appears as a fake copyright scanner showing evidence of copyrighted material found (based on the names of .torrent files it finds), with an option to pass the case to court or pay the fine to settle out of court. Based on leaked documents from Chronopay which handled the payment of these "fines", 580 people fell for the scam over a 2 month period, collecting a total of $283,000.
On thing this shows is just how easily people fall for the fake pop-ups that appear and how much money a scam artist can earn in reasonably short period of time.
Full details here on Torrent Freak.