From my experience no. Having run kprobe tests after using NERO, ONES, CloneDVD and DVDAuthor, all scans were nearly identical. The drive has a list of burning strategies for each media stored in the firmware, so it is hardware dependant......the software simply sends commands to the burner and a stream of data to its buffer. There can be exceptions when a burning software is poorly written and for some reason does not stream the data at a steady pace, but that is more dependant on the system settings and drive..... I personally have not come across such cases. Some software allows you more control over the burn by enabling/disabling some of the drive's internal functions/undocumented features, and playing with those can affect the burn but for the software you use you should not worry about it.
I have read varying opinions and articles claiming otherwise, but in theory I don't see how it can be possible and in practice I have not noticed anything.
What matters is the drive (harwdare), type of media used, the firmware and burning speed (and a healthy power supply and cables) all of this combined will have the greatest effect on the burn quality more than the software itself.