I've never heard of a blank cd causing damage to a drive.
There are a number of things to try and fix your drives. Microsoft has a Fix-it tool you could use first: http://support.microsoft.com/mats/cd_dvd_drive_problems
You can also go to Device Manager, uninstall the optical drive, then reboot and let Windows install the "new" hardware it finds.
Or you may have a registry error and have to remove upper and lower filters: http://pcsupport.about.com/od/driverssupport/ht/upperfilters-lowerfilters.htm
Another way to remove upper and lower filters is to install ImgBurn, then go to Tools-->Filter Driver Load Order and remove the filters it shows there. Then reboot the machine