Directory structure of HD-DVD-Video matches BD?

The directory structure of BD has more folders than just VIDEO_TS.

Does HD-DVD-VIDEO have a DVD-like file structure but with e.g. VTS_01_010.VOB or like BD?

HD DVD, at least the commercial ones, will have the following folders:
AACS, AACS_BAK and HVDVD_TS. My only example also has an ADV_OBJ folder, which I assume has something to do with the still pictures and menus on the disc.

In the HVDVD_TS folder you find the main movie, and the structure of the video. It uses EVO files instead of VOB files, but they are apparently both types of Mpeg files. There are also corresponding MAP files. From what I’ve read, the structure is more similar to DVD-video than Blu-ray.

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I see.
What about the video format variety?

HD DVD technically supported the standard definition formats seen in DVD, plus HD resolutions of 720p, 1080i and 1080p.

It could use three different video codecs, the Mpeg-2 seen in DVD’s, H264-Mpeg4, and VC-1. Most of the commercially made HD DVD’s used VC-1, though you will find a few with the other codecs.

For audio they used LPCM, AC3, DTS, and the higher quality formats like DTS HDMA and Dolby True HD.

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