Some modern systems use a small, separate partition on the hard drive that holds the recovery files.
Acer offers recovery media that you can apply for online. http://store.acer.com/store/acerna/en_US/home/ There is a button near the top of that page called eRecovery.
There is no way we can tell from long distance what state your hard drive is in. If the information contained within it is absolutely critical, and must be recovered, you should not do anything except talk to data recovery experts. The cost of using commercial data recovery will range from many hundreds to many thousands of dollars, depending on what needs to be done.
If the data is not extremely important, then you could try some software solutions. GetDataBack is one that is recommended, but is not free to use.