I've already given up on my old XP system working properly. I think it was an amd quad core system but old agp bus and the like... not worth messing with anymore.
An I3 should be new enough to put windows 10 onto. From what I read, it looks like the boot sector is corrupt.. when a disk fails or is no longer viable these teething problems occur. You may need to remap that drive though a thorough scan utility. 500gb and similar hard drive are old enough to see this issue.
My next build will probably be around 2020ish when ddr5 and 10gigE ports are available.