Audio/video sync issues - causes - fixes

waht, in others’ experience are the usual causes & fixes for audio & video going out of sync.

I’ve trying to rip just one song from Neil Young’d heart of Gold dvd & gettign a noticiable discrepance ( about 1 second out) usiing generic default (= xvid +audio passthru) on the default ( =highest )widescreen resolution

this is for playback on PC as an avi file , not for a mobile device.

what parameters whoudl I be tweaking to try to fix this and are there any general principles to follow in order to avoid / minimse out future out-of-synch issues

& how does synchronisation work - what casuses audio & video to go out of synch in the 1st place ???

ps I’m using v4.1.2.0 - also, a forum search on “synch” reveals lots of recent reports & someinfo gathering by Ting, but not a lot on causes/solutions/workarounds :frowning:

I do have most older versione of the program if it was better in older releases - I just need good advise on where to roll back to

it would be good to see one definitive list of known synchronisation issues + some indication from ting & co on when they might be fixed.
Is the v5 beta any better at synch issues that the current v4 ?