There are only two ways to test blank media with consumer drives without actually burning something to the disc.
The first way is to perform a Write Simulation test, which will go through the motions of burning something to the disc but with the laser power turned down so that nothing actually gets written. If a Write Simulation fails or if it reduces the speed during the burn, then that tells you that the results will be bad or that you won't be able to burn the disc at full speed.
If a Write Simulation succeeds however, there's no guarantee that a real burn will be good. So it only enables you to detect problems - it doesn't guarantee success.
On most drives only CD-R and DVD-R/RW can be used for Write Simulation, while DVD+R/RW cannot. Some BenQ and Plextor drives also support Write Simulation on DVD+R/RW media.
The second way of testing blank media is the TE/FE (a.k.a. FE/TE) testing which you can read about in this thread:
Tracking Error (TE) and Focus Error (FE) testing