Join Date: Jun 2001
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(Closest thing FREE to) The RED BOOK standard
Okay.. first of all :
Once in a while someone tends to post something like the following question in the forum , " Where can i find or what is the Red Book ?"
Though it's my personal opinion the Red Book is a lot of technical mumbo jumbo even professors could get a headache of , i tried to give it a shot
The current Red Book specification is available directly from Philips but, regrettably, it will cost you US$100 and you'll have to sign a confidentiality agreement.
What Philips calls "an approximation" of the Red Book specification is the international standard published by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) as IEC 908 (now known as IEC 60908), however this currently costs US$224! Fortunately, much (not all) of the information is repeated in the ECMA-130 CD-ROM specification, which can downloaded in PDF form at no charge.
The above text was quoted from Chip's CD
Now.. if you want to download the ECMA-130 PDF file you just right-click here to save the pdf to your drive.
Or you can use ECMA's own information (shown on the last page of the pdf file as well) :
Files can be downloaded from our FTP site, ftp.ecma.ch, logging in as anonymous and giving your E-mail address as password. This Standard is available from library ECMA-ST as a compacted, self-expanding file in MSWord 6.0 format (file E130-DOC.EXE) and as a compacted, self-expanding PostScript file (file E130-PSC.EXE). File E130-EXP.TXT gives a short presentation of the Standard.
The ECMA site can be reached also via a modem. The phone number is +41 22 735.33.29, modem settings are 8/n/1. Telnet (at ftp.ecma.ch) can also be used.
Our web site, http://www.ecma.ch, gives full information on ECMA, ECMA activities, ECMA Standards and Technical Reports."
Here's ECMA-130 in a very little nutshell :
In the past years compact disks originally developed by the Philips and Sony Companies for recording music have also been
used for recording data as they allow recording of large amounts of information in a reliable and economic manner. As a
read-only medium they are particularly suitable for use in applications such as auditing and legal documents. It appeared very quickly that there is an urgent need for public standards for this medium.
In October 1985 a number of industrial and software companies in the USA invited experts to participate in the elaboration of
a working paper describing a proposal for the volume and file structure of such disks. The result of this work, in which also
expert members of ECMA/TC15 as well as from Japan participated, was a report dated May 1986 and known as the “High Sierra Group” proposal. This proposal was submitted to ECMA for their consideration. ECMA TC15, in collaboration with
experts from user organizations, invested a considerable amount of work into this proposal in order to clarify and complete its
technical contents and to re-edit it in a form suitable for an ECMA Standard. This led to the issue in December 1986 of
Standard ECMA-119 which has been adopted by ISO as ECMA Standard ISO 9660.
The specification of the disk itself was contain in a document called “Yellow Book” issued by the Philips and Sony
Companies for their licensees only. In Spring 1987 ECMA was asked to produced a standard reflecting the contents of the
“Yellow Book” as the necessary complement to Standard ECMA-119. As a consequence the present ECMA Standard was
developed by ECMA TC31. It has been adopted by ISO/IEC JTC 1 under the fast-track procedure, and published as
International Standard ISO/IEC 10149.
A minor revision of ISO/IEC 10149 has been published in Summer 1995. This second edition of ECMA-130 has been fully
aligned with the new edition of ISO/IEC 10149.
Sectors of a Digital Data Track
The digital data to be recorded in an Information Track shall be represented by 8-bit bytes and grouped into Sectors.
A Sector is the smallest addressable part of the information area that can be accessed independently. The number of
Sectors of an Information Track is variable. It depends on the amount of information to be recorded in the
A Sector shall comprise 2352 bytes and have the following layouts depending on the setting of the Sector Mode byte.
In the following figures the byte positions are numbered starting with 0. Position 0 corresponds to the first byte of a
Sector. Digits in parentheses denote the contents of bytes expressed in hexadecimal notation.
The Header field shall consist of 4 bytes:
a Sector Address of 3 bytes.
If the Lead-in Area contains a Digital Data Track, the Sector Address of the Headers in this area shall contain the Physical Address of the Sector expressed in terms of the relative time elapsed since the beginning of the Lead-in Area.
- byte 12 shall be set to the contents of the MIN field, to which the value (A0) has been added. For example, (03) becomes (A3),
- byte 13 shall be set to the contents of the SEC field,
- byte 14 shall be set to the contents of the FRAC field.
These three fields are part of the q-channel of a Section in the Lead-in Area (see 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206).
The Sector Addresses in the user Data Area and, if the Lead-out Area contains a Digital Data Track, those in the Lead-out Area, shall contain the Physical Address of the Sector expressed in absolute time elapsed since the beginning of the User Data Area (see clause 21).
- byte 12 shall be set to the contents of the A-MIN field,
- byte 13 shall be set to the contents of the A-SEC field,
- byte 14 shall be set to the contents of the A-FRAC field.
These three fields are part of the q-channel (see 220.127.116.11) of a Section (see clause 18) that comes out of the 8-to-14 encoder at the moment at which the Sync of the Sector enters the scrambler. The time in the Header
shall be given with an accuracy of ± 1 s (see clause 21). This tolerance takes care of the delay caused by the
CIRC (see annex C) and possibly other storage registers. The length of these delays is of the order of 30 ms,
i.e. the recording length of one Sector on the disk.
a Sector Mode byte in byte position 15. The setting of this byte shall be as follows:
If set to (00) : This shall mean that all bytes in positions 16 to 2 351 of the Sector are set to (00).
If set to (01) : This shall mean that all bytes in positions 16 to 2 063 are user data bytes and that the
bytes in positions 2 064 to 2 351 are set according to 14.3 to 14.6 below. Thus the user data is protected by EDC, ECC and CIRC.
If set to (02) : This shall mean that all bytes in positions 16 to 2 351 are user data bytes. Thus the user data is protected by CIRC only.
Track structure of the Information Area
The Information area shall contain Information Tracks in
- the Lead-in Area;
- the User Data Area;
- the Lead-out Area.
The Lead-in Area shall contain only one Information Track called Lead-in Track. The Lead-out Area contains only
one Information Track called Lead-out Track.
The user data shall be recorded in the Information Tracks in the User Data Area. All Information Tracks containing
digital data shall be structured in Sectors.
For the purpose of linking Information Tracks in the Information Area, these tracks may have:
Pause : A part of an Information Track on which only control information but no user data is recorded.
Pre-gap : A first part of a Digital Data Track not containing user data and encoded as a Pause. It is divided
into two intervals:
- first interval: at least 75 Sections (at least 1 s) coded as the preceding track, i.e. the Control field
(see 22.3.1) of the q-channel (see 22.3) and, in case of a preceding Digital Data Track, the setting
of the Sector Mode byte are identical with those of the previous Information Track;
- second interval: at least 150 Sections (at least 2 s) in which the Control field of the q-channel and the setting of the Sector Mode byte are identical with those of the part of the track where user data is recorded. In this interval of the Pre-gap the data is structured in Sectors.
Post-gap : A last part of a Digital Data Track, not containing user data, and structured in Sectors. It has the
length of at least 150 Sections (at least 2 s). The setting of the Control field of the q-channel and
the setting of the Sector Mode byte are identical with those of the part of the track where the user data is recorded.
The Lead-in Track is either a Digital Data Track or an Audio Track. If it is a Digital Data Track, it shall be
structured in Sectors and end with a Post-gap. If it is an Audio Track, it shall be according to IEC 908.
20.2 User Data Area
The Information Tracks in the User Data Area shall be either Digital Data Tracks only or Digital Data Tracks and
Audio Tracks. The following rules apply to the tracks in the User
- If the first Information Track is a Digital Data Track, it shall start with a Pause of 150 Sections (2 s) and shall
be coded as the second interval of a Pre-gap.
- A Digital Data Track, not being the first track in the User Data Area, shall begin with a Pre-gap if the
preceding track is a Digital Data Track with a different Sector mode or if it is an Audio Track.
- A Digital Data Track shall end with a Post-gap if the following track is an Audio Track. This rule applies also
to the last Digital Data Track in the User Data Area, which is followed by the Lead-out Track.
The Lead-out Track is either a Digital Data Track or an Audio Track. If it is a Digital Data Track, it shall be
structured in Sectors, without Pre-gap. If the Lead-out Track is an Audio Track, it shall be according to IEC 908.
People who read the EFM thread will recognize this
A regular bit pattern fed into the EFM encoder can cause large values of the digital sum value in case the merging bits cannot
reduce this value (see annex E). The scrambler reduces this risk by converting the bits in byte 12 to 2 351 of a Sector in a prescribed way. Each bit in the input stream of the scrambler is added modulo 2 to the least significant bit of a maximum length register. The least significant bit of each byte comes first in the input stream. The 15-bit register is of the parallel block synchronized type, and fed back according to polynomial x15 + x + 1. After the Sync of the Sector, the register is pre-set with the value 0000 0000 0000 0001, where the ONE is the least significant bit.
Each group of 14 Channel bits is preceded by three Merging bits to satisfy the requirement of at least two and at most ten ZEROs between two ONEs, also between consecutive groups. Whilst two Merging bits would suffice for this purpose, the third bit is added to be able to minimize the digital sum value (DSV). The DSV at a given position is the sum of the value of the Channel bits from the start of the disk up to the specified position. The DSV must be as close to zero as possible to allow reliable radial tracking and reliable detection of the crossings of HF signals with the decision level.
"Use the force Harry!" - Gandalf
Last edited by Mr. Belvedere; 03-07-2002 at 00:18.
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